b'the government (from 38.5 million acres in 1851 to 2.3 million acres by 1905), they would be able to remain on their ancestral lands. During their visit, five of the six chiefs sat for formal portraits. Red Star has selected two photos of each chief, one frontal and one profile, digitally reproduced them, and added handwritten notations in red ink.It is easy to imagine that we know these images; they index a recognizable vocabulary of Native American representational techniquethe feathers, the fringed clothing, the eth-nographic gazebut Red Stars annotations force us to reckon with the limitations of our interpretative frameworks. Few would know that the bows in Medicine Crows hair indicate that he has physically overcome two enemies and slit their throats, or that the ermine on his trousers means that he has captured an enemys weapon. The fringed jackets are called honour shirts, and the specifics of their design indicate war deeds, courageous actions these chiefs have taken that warrant their designation as good men. The chiefs choice of dress itself indicates their determination to succeed at yet another war, now a diplomatic one. On several of the photos, Red Star has also included speech bubbles proclaiming the pictured chiefs name in the Apsalooke language.These careful annotations are not only addressed to non-indigenous people. Given the longstanding repression of indigenous peoples culture, history, and knowledge, the work is also a resource for the Apsalooke community. Here the historical and cultural significance of these images, emptied of their vitality and meaning by centuries of colonial repression, is redeemed.64'